Auguste Bergy discussed polished axes that were found at this site, which has now disappeared as a result of construction and urbanization of the area. Beirut IV was on the left bank of the river and on either side of the road leading eastwards from the Furn esh Shebbak police station towards the river that marked the city limits; the area was covered in red sand. A large number of Middle Paleolithic flint tools were found on the surface and in side gullies that drain into the river. They included around 50 varied bifaces accredited to the Acheulean period, some with a lustrous sheen, now held at the Museum of Lebanese Prehistory.
Henri Fleisch found an Emireh point amongst material from the site, which has now disappeared beneath buildings. Beirut V was discovered by Dillenseger and said to be in an orchard of mulberry trees on the left bank of the river, near the river mouth, to be close to the railway station and bridge to Tripoli. Levallois flints and bones and similar surface material were found amongst brecciated deposits; the area has now been built on. Beirut VI was a site discovered while building on the property of the Lebanese Evangelical School for Girls in the Patriarchate area of Beirut, it was notable for the discovery of a finely styled Canaanean blade javelin suggested to date to the early or middle Neolithic periods of Byblos and, held in the school library.
In , Assad participated in a second coup, which toppled the traditional leaders of the Ba'ath Party and brought a radical military faction headed by Salah Jadid to power. Assad was appointed defense minister by the new government. Four years Assad initiated a third coup which ousted Jadid , appointed himself as the undisputed leader of Syria. Assad de-radicalised the Ba'ath government when he took power by giving more space to private property and by strengthening the country's foreign relations with countries which his predecessor had deemed reactionary.
He sided with the Soviet Union during the Cold War in turn for support against Israel , while he had forsaken the pan-Arab concept of unifying the Arab world into one Arab nation, he sought to make Syria the defender of Arab interests against Israel. When he came to power, Assad organised state services along sectarian lines; the collegial powers of Ba'athist decision-making were curtailed, were transferred to the Syrian presidency. The Syrian government ceased to be a one-party system in the normal sense of the word, was turned into a one-party state with a strong presidency.
To maintain this system, a cult of personality centered on Assad and his family was created by the president and Ba'ath party. Having become the main source of initiative inside the Syrian government, Assad began looking for a successor, his first choice was his brother Rifaat, but Rifaat attempted to seize power in —84 when Hafez's health was in doubt. Rifaat was subsequently exiled. Hafez's next choice of successor was Bassel. However Bassel died in a car accident in , Hafez turned to his third choice—his younger son Bashar, who at that time had no political experience.
This move was met with criticism within some quarters of the Syrian ruling class, but Assad persisted with his plan and demoted several officials who opposed this succession. Hafez died in and Bashar succeeded him as President. Hafez was born on 6 October in Qardaha to an Alawite family of the Kalbiyya tribe, his grandfather, Sulayman Al-Wahhish, gained the nickname Wahhish for his strength. Hafez was Ali's ninth son, the fourth from his second marriage.
Ali Sulayman married twice, had eleven children.
By the s he was respected locally, like many others he opposed the French Mandate for Syria established in Ali Sulayman cooperated with the French administration and was appointed to an official post. Local residents called him "al-Assad" for his accomplishments, in he made the nickname his surname. In he was one of 80 Alawite notables who signed a letter addressed to the French Prime Minister and stating that " Alawi people rejected attachment to Syria and wished to stay under French protection".
Alawites opposed a united Syrian state, Hafez's father shared this belief; as the French left Syria, many Syrians mistrusted Alawites because of their alignment with France. Hafez left his Alawite village, he was the first in his family to attend high school, but in Latakia Assad faced Sunni anti-Alawite bias. He was an excellent student, winning several prizes at about age The Ba'ath Party espoused a socialist ideology. Assad was an asset to the party, organizing Ba'ath student cells and carrying the party's message to the poor sections of Latakia and Alawite villages, he was opposed by the Muslim Brotherhood , allied with wealthy and conservative Muslim families.
His high school accommodated students from rich and poor families, Assad was joined by poor, anti-establishment Sunni Muslim youth from the Ba'ath Party in confrontations with students from wealthy Brotherhood families. He made many Sunni friends, some of whom became his political allies. While still a teenager, Assad became prominent in the party as an organizer and recruiter, head of his school's student-affairs committee from to and president of the Union of Syrian Students.
During his political activism in school, he met many men. After graduating from high school, Assad aspired to be a medical doctor, but his father could not pay for his study at the Jesuit University of St. Joseph in Beirut. Instead, in he decided to join the Syrian Armed Forces. Assad entered the military academy in Homs , which offered free food, lodging and a stipend.
It advocates the establishment of a Syrian nation state spanning the Fertile Crescent , including present day Syria , Iraq , Jordan, Israel , Sinai, southeastern Turkey , based on geographical boundaries and the common history people within the boundaries share. With over , members as of , it is the second largest legal political group in Syria after the ruling Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party , In Lebanon, it has been a major secular and organised elite party in the political history of the country for over 80 years; until recent times it was a key group in the March 8 Alliance.
Founded in Beirut in as an anticolonial and national liberation organization hostile to French colonialism , the party played a significant role in Lebanese politics and was involved in attempted coups d'etat in and following which it was repressed, it was active in resistance against the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in and the subsequent occupation of southern Lebanon until while continuously supporting the Syrian presence in Lebanon out of both belief in Syrian irredentism but due to the decades-long repression it endured at the hands of the Baath Party in Syria.
It remained organized, by the late s had joined the Left and allied itself with the PLO and the Lebanese Communist Party , despite the ideological rivalry that persists among them. From to 6 May , the party was part of the Popular Front for Liberation. During the course of the Syrian Civil War the party has seen its relevance increasing in Syria, where 12, fighters of the Party's armed branch, the Eagles of the Whirlwind , fight alongside the Syrian Armed Forces against the Syrian opposition and the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
In the mid Nineteenth Century Butrus al-Bustani was one of the first to assert the existence of a Natural Syrian nation that should be accommodated in a reformed Ottoman Empire , he belonged to the Nahda , thinkers influenced by the Arabic Literary Renaissance and the French Revolution and who wished to shape the Tanzimat reforms, which were an attempt to introduce a constitutional monarchy with religious freedom to reverse the Ottoman state's creeping economic marginalisation and which would lead to the Young Turks and the Second Constitutional Era.
An influential follower of al-Bustani was the Belgian Jesuit historian, Henri Lammens , ordained as a priest in Beirut in , who claimed that Greater Syria had since ancient times encompassed all the land between the Arab peninsula, the Levantine corridor and the Taurus Mountains , including all the peoples within the Fertile Crescent.
This was accompanied with the rise of a profoundly idealistic patriotism resembling European romantic nationalism, idealizing the coming of a National Revival to the Levant, that would shake off the Ottoman past and propel back what many started to see again as the cradle of civilization into the modern world's front stage. In that aspect, the works of Khalil Gibran who began expressing his belief in Syrian nationalism and patriotism are central; as Gibran said, "I believe in you, I believe in your destiny.
I believe. I believe, and what is it to be a good citizen? It is to stand before the towers of New York and Washington and San Francisco saying in your hearts, "I am the descendent of a people the builded Damascus and Byblos , Tyre and Sidon and Antioch , I am here to build with you, with a will.
The late s and the early s were a period of cultural and political effervescence that contributed to the emergence of Syrian nationalism as a distinct ideology. In , the French army toppled the first Arab Kingdom of Syria and the Hashemite King Faisal , proclaimed "King of all-Syria" by the Syrian National Congress at the Battle of Maysalun ; the British and the French dissected the region into spheres of influence in what became known as the Sykes-Picot agreement , setting up colonial administrations throughout the Levant.
The Great Syrian Revolt was brutally repressed in while a small clique of traditional landowners and notables coalesced around the newly founded administration of the French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon. Greater Lebanon was established on the ruins of the Mutasarrifiyya of Mount Lebanon with arbitrarily drawn borders and with a state structure dominated by the Christian Maronites , a community whose elite were well-disposed to the French, who would ensure the French colonial empire a strong foothold in the Arab World.
Jewish immigration to Palestine was increasing at an alarming speed, bringing to the shores of Palestine Zionist migrants who had little affinity to or similarities with the local populace, be it the Palestinian Arabs or the traditional local Jewish communities. Class tensions sharpened as some Palestinian landowners sold their lands to the Jewish National Fund , with little regard to the national aspirations and plight of the peasantry; as the Balfour Declaration became public, fears in the Levant of the parceling out of the region along Colonial borders implied in the minds.
It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7, kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until , when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In , the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in with the creation of the Empire of Brazil , a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress.
An authoritarian military junta came to power in and ruled until , after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in , defines it as a democratic federal republic. Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy.
It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil " because of the brazilwood trade.
The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay , Brazil is called " Pindorama "; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees". Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman , were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo , Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11, years.
Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. Philosophy Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence, values, reason and language. Such questions are posed as problems to be studied or resolved; the term was coined by Pythagoras.
Philosophical methods include questioning, critical discussion, rational argument, systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real? Philosophers pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live?
Is it better to be just or unjust? Do humans have free will? From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle to the 19th century, "natural philosophy" encompassed astronomy and physics. For example, Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy became classified as a book of physics. In the 19th century, the growth of modern research universities led academic philosophy and other disciplines to professionalize and specialize. In the modern era, some investigations that were traditionally part of philosophy became separate academic disciplines, including psychology , sociology and economics.
Other investigations related to art, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Is political utopia a hopeful dream or hopeless fantasy? Major sub-fields of academic philosophy include metaphysics , ethics, political philosophy and philosophy of science. Traditionally, the term "philosophy" referred to any body of knowledge. In this sense, philosophy is related to religion, natural science and politics. Newton's Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy is classified in the s as a book of physics.
In the first part of the first book of his Academics, Cicero introduced the division of philosophy into logic and ethics. Metaphysical philosophy was the study of existence, God, logic and other abstract objects; this division has changed.
Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences astronomy, chemistry and cosmology. Moral philosophy still includes value theory. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today.
Colin McGinn and others claim. Chalmers and others, by contrast, see progress in philosophy similar to that in science, while Talbot Brewer argued that "progress" is the wrong standard by which to judge philosophical activity. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as "how are we to live" and "what is the nature of reality".
A broad and impartial conception of philosophy finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality and life in all world civilizations. Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world and dates to Pre-Socratic thinkers who were active in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BCE such as Thales and Pythagoras who practiced a "love of wisdom" and were termed physiologoi. Socrates was a influential philosopher, who insisted that he possessed no wisdom but was a pursuer of wisdom. Western philosophy can be divided into three eras: Ancient, Medieval philosophy, Modern philosophy; the Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato , who founded the Platonic Academy and his student Aristotle, founding the Peripatetic school, who were both influential in Western tradition.
Other traditions include Cynicism, Greek Skepticism and Epicureanism. Important topics covered by the Greeks included metaphysics, the nature of the well-lived life, the possibility of knowledge and the nature of reason. With the rise of the Roman empire, Greek philosophy was increasingly discussed in Latin by Romans such as Cicero and Seneca.
Medieval philosophy is the period following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and was dominated by the ris. Situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf , it shares borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia ; as of , Kuwait has a population of 4. Oil reserves were discovered in commercial quantities in From to , the country underwent large-scale modernization. In the s, Kuwait experienced a period of geopolitical instability and an economic crisis following the stock market crash. In , Kuwait was invaded, annexed, by Saddam's Iraq; the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait came to an end in after military intervention by a military coalition led by the United States.
Kuwait is a constitutional sovereign state with a semi-democratic political system. Kuwait has a high-income economy backed by the world's sixth largest oil reserves.
The Kuwaiti dinar is the highest valued currency in the world. According to the World Bank , the country has the fourth highest per capita income ; the Constitution was promulgated in In , the town of Kuwait was founded in modern-day Kuwait City. Administratively, it was a sheikhdom , ruled by local sheikhs. QN, As important as the observation that March14 March 8 have polarized the country for years I do believe that the most revealing and possibly the most disconcerting part of the description by a participant was 1 the fact that the security detail left as soon as the clash between demonstrators and counter demonstrators started and 2 the fact that the police station would not turn away the accusers.
That is why we keep repeating ad nauseum that dissent and diversity cannot prosper without the rule of law. It comes — or should, at least — before Shebaa, Hariri assassination, maritime borders, Syrian uprisings, corruption reform, sectarian reform, etc…. None of those things have a chance of going anywhere without a nation that values and understands and enforces the rule of law. Sometimes, well often, I wonder whether the Lebanese politicians ever think about the implications of the policies that they advocate. The Lebanese foreign minister ,Mansour, as well as an Amal spokesperson insisted that Lebanon can never vote to condemn the Syrian regime because of the special relationship between the two countries.
Please reread the last statement, the Lebanese officials are not only endorsing the Syrian violations of human rights but are actually going further, much further. They are taking the position that is impossible to defend that Syria has a carte blanche to do whatever it chooses to whoever it chooses and Lebanon will never object to any Syrian measure under any set of circumstances. That is pathetic.
Antun Sa'adeh: The Man, His Thought: An Anthology [Adel Beshara] on Amazon. com. Saadeh was Lebanese and he loved Lebanon and greater Syria. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. The Editor Adel Beshara studied Economics at La Trobe Saadeh was Lebanese and he loved Lebanon and greater Syria. He recognized very early in his life the dangers of colonialism in the Middle East .
I agree completely with you. But the sad fact is that you parse and read these statements using proper language skills, so to speak. Where words actually mean what they say. Come on! You should know better than to point out how vacuous words are in the mouths of Lebanese. I am sure mister Musa did not mean that Syria has carte blanche to do as it pleases.
Fakhamat El-Raees, Sheikh Bad Vilbel Beik, defender of brotherly relations, cooexistence, and arabism against imperialist, zionist and satanist conspiracies…. They knew they were provoking and they knew the protest would probably not have been authorized by the ministry of interior. At least bruises heal, but hopefully not their over-inflated egos. Murad, They were outside the Syrian Embassy, for that purpose.
How is that provocation.? The old school members of the SSNP adhere to the principles of the party and the vision of its founder, but those have all but disappeared. Antoun Saade would be turning in his grave right now, and sadly this new breed of party fanatics cling on to superficial things like hating Israel and supporting the Assad regime. Is this a joke? I am pessimistic, I am sorry. I respect the courage of those who did what they did. But let us face it, I am too risk averse to provoke pseudo-militia men who still believe we are in the s. Was this innocent?
If not why the flag in the post? If the SSNP was involved in the attacks, then yes they are included in the goon category. The author of the post indicated that they were. Let me ask you something: if you knew for a fact that there would be at least people at a peaceful anti-Baath protest in front of the Syrian Embassy, would you go? I understand not wanting to provoke militia men, but I think these fears can be mitigated by a feeling of strength in numbers.
The majority of the attacks I witnessed seem to have been sparked by traffic incidents and not political issues. I hope one of the protesters managed to get some video footage or photos of the thugs. Especially with the new Interior Ministers haughty claims of not being uselessly impotent when it comes to matters like this.
A video of the cops at the station telling beaten up protesters to just leave would be useful as well. The new government wants to claim that it is capable of change, then cleaning the streets from all these thugs would be a good first move. Why is this article focused on the ssnp flag when the goons were baathists and syrian workers? Why is it an ssnp flag when members of the ssnp put themselves in the middle of the chaos to protect the protesters from the thugs.
http://xn--h1adckg2czd.xn--p1ai/modules/bini-zithromax-a-buon.php Indeed the party has been present in hamra ever since it has been established due to the fact that its founder was present there in AUB and the students took to his thoughts. The liberal environment of Hamra was set by the artists and intellectuals and activists from the 60s onward, and the party members and the party thoughts were a huge part responsible for this identity and plurality, not because they had weapons but because they were free thinkers ex: Nidal al achkar and the theatre, Assi Rahbani, student protests to claim more rights etc.
Military feudalism in Andalusia Turtushi He is getting more critical of Syrian regime but still staying with M8 to stay cozied up with HA. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. You know it all and everyone else is stupid since they do not see it your way? Film in Arabic about Saadeh's return to Lebanon. Retrieved
The pre-existing negative sentiment against the ssnp has just found itself a new bone to munch on considering that the whole country is in a continuous state of crisis, that to some extent have gotten used to, and forget about. But it also begs people to take note of the situation and make the required preparations. Hariri blocked and still is blocking the whole road, the other parties do the same for security measures.
So acting all surprised and revolted for the ssnp office is just plain stupid. Why would you support a racist party that believes that Jews cannot be part of the middle east? THAT is the difference between the Lebanese psyche and that of people living in the civilized world. The fact that bullies and thugs with no official affiliation can claim a piece of sidewalk or cafe, park as they will, bully anyone who looks at them funny, and that local residents will, for the most part, turn a blind eye from fear of rocking the boat, or getting in trouble is VERY telling.
Not moi dude. That country is a cesspool of HA goons and phone tapping is widespread. Would I say such a thing lol??? The ssnp is very semetic and your use of this word shows how little you know about semitism and the ssnp. If anything the ssnp is the most non-racist party that exists in this country and region. So instead of just stating things you heard and quick lines you read, how about you read a bit more and try to grasp the thoughts behind this party.
I am sure by then you will be able to form another albeit your very personal opinion. I wish you had devoted a post for the whole phenomena of political parties control of their areas, and the people who happened to live in those areas, instead of focusing on one case. Even today in a hamra cafe next to my table people were talking about the incidents of tuesday loudly. On the streets too I heard two discussing openly. Sometimes, I feel they are unaware of the consequences. I could be one of the goons, a nerdy one however.
Some people are talking. I prefer not though I feel to say what I want on the phone and internet. This kind of denial of reality. And i think part of it is essentially Stockholm Syndrome. Maybe he was a Zionist…. First, Saadeh says very clearly: he Syrian nation is the product of the ethnic unity of the Syrian people which developed throughout history. This principle cannot be said to imply that Jews are a part of the Syrian nation and equal in rights and duties to the Syrians. Such an interpretation is incompatible with this principle which excludes the integration of elements with alien and exclusive racial loyalties in the Syrian nation.
Such elements cannot fit into any homogeneous nation. There are large settlements of immigrants in Syria, such as the Armenians, Kurds and Circassians, whose assimilation is possible given sufficient time. These elements may dissolve in the nation and lose their special loyalties. But there is one large settlement which can not in any respect be reconciled to the principle of Syrian nationalism, and that is the Jewish settlement.
IT is a dangerous settlement which can never be assimilated because it consists of a people that, although it has mixed with many other peoples, has remained a heterogeneous mixture, not a nation, with strange stagnant beliefs and aims of its own, essentially incompatible with Syrian rights and sovereignty ideals.
It is the duty of the Syrian Social Nationalists to repulse the immigration of this people with all their might. This ideology here claims to be all-inclusive, but then goes out of its way to exclude one particular group Jews. I think that qualifies as antisemite, by any measure. He claims that Armenians, Phoenicians and so on are ok, but not Jews.
His logic does not stand. Pure crackpot ideology. And this is just ONE of his many points. He is saying that Syria is the product of the people that live in it. These elements were open to one another and it was re-enforced by this interaction. However he has seen that the Jews have a non open approach to other groups and human elements, and that has been seen over centuries of their interactions with others. Also who ever is not jew is considered gohem, or less than human.
If you are not able to understand that a people that think they are better than others, and do not wish to mix with others just because their religion tells them that, are not racist, then you are not able to see much at all and you are completely missing the point of what Antun Saadeh is saying. So now ever neighborhood in Beirut needs defense. This is an infinitely destructive logic. Again, that logic makes no sense.
The Jews of Syria and Lebanon, back in the day, were as integrated into society as the Armenians. Which is to say, only to a point, in our overly sectarian political systems and societal systems. The Kurds of Syria have always maintained a desire for their own homeland, even when integrated, to a point, into Syrian society. The bottom line is this: In most countries, there is a certain degree of integration. For the most part, they are integrated into every day life, but they still maintain a sense of being their own subgroup, with their own mores.
In the middle east, our various melting pots are not anywhere near as cohesive as in the USA. In the past, they rarely converged, as the ruler of a community tended to dictate the identity of the population based on their own 1 Gellner, Ernest. Second ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, , 1. London: Verso, , 6.
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, , Conversely, nationalism, as an ideology and mentality, inherits concepts from the pre-nationalist era such as history, culture, and other conceptions to form a new social discourse not defined by its rulers so much as by socially recognizable attributes6. This could best be seen in the French Revolution: whereas, previously, the Kingdom of France was defined by its absolute monarchy, the new France was defined by the uniting of its people around their nation — that of France7 8.
The view that nationalism is a modern phenomenon produced by recent forces was one espoused by Eric Hobsbawm as well. Therefore, Hobsbawm stresses the need to analyze the national phenomena in terms of the context and conditions surrounding the rise of said nationalist sentiments, such as politics, economy, bureaucracy, and so on He continues by calling it an imposition of a high overarching culture on society to suppress other low cultures that had taken hold of the population, which can be seen by the subordination of various other identities, such as religion, culture, and sect, to the encompassing nation.
He then goes on to call 6 Ibid, This is an issue that continues throughout his work, as he fails to take into consideration nationalist movements that occurred before modern or even industrial times. However, the idea of nationalism being a shift from previous societal conventions is still an important notion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, , The usage of terminology here calls to mind the extreme end of the nationalist spectrum: the fascist states of Europe during the interwar period, notably Italy and Germany, which called for the subordination of the entire population to the will of the people and for the purpose of the endurance of their nation — both nations whom had also seen these ultranationalist forces rise as a result of drastic changes to their society following the chaos of the First World War and the economic crash of the s.
Whether it is a revival of a dormant nation or an invention spurred on by social developments is open to interpretation by those who debate from either side, but the fact remains that nationalism is a social force that relies on historical narratives and unitary forces to build a society based on social aspects of its population, whether or not that society has any basis in fact or history itself.
With a firm understanding of what nationalism entails, we may now proceed to unpack the philosophies of the Middle Eastern nationalists. Chronologically, we must start with the Syrian Social Nationalist Party.
To gain a better insight, we must look into what Saadeh had espoused in his most important work and the basis for his party, The Genesis of Nations. This sociological outlook was influenced by the primary question Saadeh and many other leaders in the Middle East seeking independence from the European Mandate systems would face: who are we? The issue was compounded by the many divides within the societies of the Middle East as to what direction they should take once they achieved their independence.
This leads us to the analysis as to what Saadeh defined as a nation: 12 Seale, Patrick. London: Oxford University Press, , New York: Metropolitan Books, , Beirut: Dar Fikr, , Community, according to Saadeh, was a group of people in a specific area who were bound together by common lives, experiences, and interests, and assimilated from its environment certain characteristics that made it distinct, aside from other characteristics shared between it and the environment and other communities around it For example, in his description of a Syrian nation, he explained that the community in Beirut and the community in Damascus each had different experiences and characteristics, such as their accent and social environment, but also exhibited shared ones as well, and a nation was one where the shared characteristics was stronger than the difference This outlook on nationalism was inspired mostly by French nationalism, which was based on geography being the defining factor in national identity Saadeh was seemingly inspired by the works of Georg Hegel and Karl Marx in setting up the basis for the origin of nations, more specifically the notion of dialectics, and of a thesis and antithesis the opposition to the thesis creating a synthesis which is a merging of them both In applying this to Syria, Saadeh referred to notions of a Phoenician origin in Lebanon as a thesis, and notions of Arab origins as the antithesis, and thus he saw his nationalist vision as 17 Saadeh, An oun.
Reading: Ithaca, , Saadeh also refrained from classifying nations based on race or language, as, in the former, no nation had one racial or even national origin, but were rather a combination of groups based on interactions between the communities24, and in terms of the latter, while he explains that it is important for cohesive purposes to use one language, he points to examples such as Switzerland where it did not exclusively use one language, and yet was able to maintain its unity as a nation As an ardent secularist, Saadeh also refrained from using religion as a template for national identity, instead advocating constantly for a separation of the religion from the state In terms of culture, Saadeh did not see culture as the primary factor in nationalism; rather, it was an outcome of the formation of nations, instead of being exclusive to them Edited by Adel Beshara.
Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, , Beirut, Lebanon: Bissan, , London: Folios, , The key to this came in two forms. First was the Arabic language, which would serve as the linkage between the various Arab nations to unite together into an Arab state. The second form was in religion, specifically Islam. Although a Christian and a secularist, Aflaq continually referred to Islam as playing an important role in the formation of the Arab nation.
Berkeley: University of California Press, , April Accessed April 16, Lambert Academic Publishing, , Washington, D. European versions of nationalism that separated religion from national narratives.
According to Aflaq, the relationship between Arabism and Islam was much different than other similar relationships, and in time the Arab Christians would accept Islam as their national culture and, eventually, understand and love it in order to protect it as the most important aspect of their Arab identity He also made a point that the primary uniting factor between the Arabs, be they Christian, Jewish, or Muslim, be love above all else, as he deemed this to be the essence of the spirit of nationalism The party also adopted a socialist aspect to it once it merged with the Arab Socialist Party led by Akram Hawrani This made them quite attractive in the urban areas of Syria, as the populist nature of their message found many enthusiastic supporters within the cities Translated by Ziad el Jishi.
April 5, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, , Lambert Academic Publishing, , 9. Both Communism and Syrian nationalism had at their core the belief of a revolution to reform their society, spearheaded by a vanguard party that was meant to ensure this outcome. Other minorities such as the Berbers, Assyrians, and Kurds, in the region were, according to Aflaq, close to the Arabs in the sense of a shared history and destiny Common themes in the usage of historical narrative.