Laser Diode Microsystems (Microtechnology and MEMS)

Laser Diode Microsystems (Microtechnology and MEMS)
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A special feature is the laser processing of substrates on the fly, which means a continuous winding process for achieving a very high throughput. Arias GmbH manufactures wet process equipment which is used in research and development laboratories as well as in fabs producing micro-electronic modular units. In addition to these wet benches, the company delivers laminar flow units, ultra pure water systems, chemical supply systems and intensive scrubbers.

The Institute of Production Engineering of the Helmut-Schmidt-University in Hamburg introduces projects in the research fields micro manufacturing, robotics and production automation.

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Main objective in the research area micro production is the determination of physical size effects arising from down scaling manufacturing processes and their inline compensation. Based on fundamental research the department develops and transfers technical solutions into industrial application. The Fraunhofer-Institute for Production Technology IPT will be demonstrating a compact and ultra-precise milling machine with linear direct drives in all machine axes that only takes up a single square meter.

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MiniMill can be used to process workpieces with a precision in the single-figure micrometer range. High levels of accuracy are made possible by the use of high-precision gear controls in combination with decoupled direct drives and high-resolution optical encoders. The decoupling of the feed forces from the machine structure enables an up to five times higher jerk of the axes, which results in extreme high dynamics.

A reduced heat-affected zone and the flexible adjustment of the weld seam are the major positive characteristics of this method. IMS bv offers manufacturing solutions for the high-precision, electric and medical industry. One of the key aspects is the modular system build-up. An example of this is ProMicro, a semi-automatic work cell for assembly of small products and components in the micro range.

Ellipsometers and reflectometers for the measurement of thinnest layers are also offered. Future production systems for micro assembly should be based on a recognizable, open and well-chosen architecture. The architecture presented by EUPASS will enable standardization amongst different suppliers, helping realize production systems significantly faster and more reliable.

The Microfactory — a compact production system for smallest parts like bio-degradable medical implants or electronic components — will also be presented by the Finnish university. During the development and production process small and sensitive micro parts have to be continuous cleaned or rinsed. Ultra-pure water is the no. Manufacturers of micro parts for medical devices, solar technology, hybrid circuits or pharmaceutical pre-products can optimize their production process and reduce costs by using a safe technology for ultra pure water supply.

The core business of NanoCompound GmbH is ultra-precision polishing media. The nano diamond material Fullaron is used as an additive to improve material and surface properties. Here the topics are for example scratch and wear-resistant surfaces, long-lasting mat lacquers, low-friction tribological systems, heat conduction systems, improved plastics and ultra thin coatings. Functional nano lacquers for de-mister, scratch-resistant coatings, photo catalysis and self-purification are presented by GXC Coatings GmbH, which exhibits together with Sympatec under the roof of Nano- und Materialinnovationen Niedersachsen e.

go NanoFocus AG presents 3D measurement methods for surface inspection in the quality assurance process. NanoFocus systems are already used for the monitoring of surfaces in the automotive, steel and printing industries. The highly complex systems of the series MFE Metrology for Frontend , however, have high-end features such as multi-sensor technology, automation and robotics handling. In a special scattering geometry, the cross correlation of the scattered light allows the precise separation of the single and the multiple scattered fractions.

With PCCS the multiple scattering is completely suppressed. Polytec GmbH presents its optical measurement instruments for the characterization of dynamic and static topography properties of microsystems. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicon Technology ISIT develops miniaturized, high-precision acceleration and angular rate sensors gyroscopes for the automotive industry in collaboration with Sensordynamics. A gyroscope detects the movement of a body in space.

For example in a car it can be utilized for vehicle dynamic control systems like ESP. Other applications can be image stabilization for cameras and mobile phones as well as interactive interfaces for game paddles in virtual reality animations. ISIT manufactures sensor structures in dimensions of a few microns using microsystem technologies in a state of the art semiconductor production line.

Included is the integration of electronic circuits for signal evaluation in one package. Reproduced with permission from He, Yun, et al. A preclinical research study for mouse brain was demonstrated using the high-speed MEMS scanner [ 75 ]. Two pulse lasers i. Figure 3 bi shows the fused PA MAP image of microvasculature and oxygen saturation level in the same mouse brain. Figure 3 bii shows the hemodynamic responses to electrical stimulations in real time. The PA amplitude of right hemisphere was increased in response to electrical stimulation on the left hind limb.

The 1-axis water immersible MEMS mirror can also be used in therapy. He et al. Similar to the previous results, they first imaged the microvasculature in a mouse ear with a nm wavelength laser. The flow of circulating melanoma cells was acquired while using a nm wavelength laser. The circulating melanoma cells were immediately killed by another therapy laser, which was self-triggered by the PA signal of the melanoma cells. However, it still has limitations such as bulky system size due to the additional motorized stage for volumetric imaging. For clinical translation, such as endoscopy, laparoscopy, or handheld systems, it is essential to have both i high imaging speed and ii small system size.

To overcome these limitations, two kinds of 2-axis water immersible MEMS scanning mirror were developed, as shown in Figure 4 ai,aii [ 72 , 77 ]. Similar to the 1-axis water immersible MEMS scanning mirror, they are also made of flexible polymer instead of brittle silicon. One was fabricated by a laser cutting of biaxially-oriented polyethylene terephthalate BOPET film, and the other was made by soft lithography of polydimethylsiloxane PDMS. They are commonly adapted to a gimbal structure, which can steer the optical and acoustic beam simultaneously along the two axes on one scanner.

Aluminum coated silicon mirror enhanced the reflectivity of optical and acoustic beams. Strong electromagnetic actuation along two axes was used to overcome the water resistance. Reproduced with permission from Huang, Chih-Hsien, et al. Reproduced with permission from Kim, Jin Young, et al. Fast optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy using a 2-axis water-proofing MEMS scanner; published by Nature, Reproduced with permission from Lin, Li, et al.

Reproduced with permission from Park, Kyungjin, et al. Kim et al. For this system, lateral and axial resolutions were 3. Moothanchery et al. This system shows a high lateral resolution of 3. Lin et al. The 3D volumetric imaging rate over a region of 2. Park et al. They modified the water immersible MEMS scanning mirror to a round shape to reduce the system size. All of the parts, including 2-axis MEMS scanning mirror, were integrated into this small probe diameter: 17 mm. Thanks to the small size and fast imaging speed, this handheld probe is suitable for both small animal and human imaging.

In Table 1 , we summarize and present the specifications of all MEMS scanning mirrors compared to conventional scanning methods i. However, due to the relatively low sensitivity and limited frequency bandwidth of small PVDF, there are limits to using mini-sized probes for endoscopic and vascular applications. MUTs can be an excellent alternative to overcome these issues with broad frequency bandwidth and miniaturized size. CMUT utilizes capacitance variation that is related to energy transduction between a silicon substrate and a thin membrane layer to detect the US signal.

It has several unique advantages, such as i convenient interfacing with front-end electronic circuits and ii can be easily manufactured to have diverse array sizes with individually linked electronics [ 84 , 85 , 86 , 87 ]. As shown in Figure 5 ai , A. Nikoozadeh et al.

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All concentric rings were located in the main probe body with different diameters i. Same transducer elements were used at each concentric ring with different center frequencies i. The probe has an inner diameter of 5. The miniaturization provides a good opportunity to use them in endoscopic PAI systems.

A channel US imaging platform Verasonics, Inc. In Figure 5 aiii , the volumetric image of the metal spring was obtained by degrees rotation of the B-mode plane along the vertical axis and accumulating the MAP. Chen et al. Reproduced with permission from Nikoozadeh, Amin, et al. Reproduced with permission from Zhang, Jian, et al. Reproduced with permission from Chen, Bingzhang, et al. Zhang et al. To fabricate the CMUT array, four-inch silicon wafer consisting of the substrate and a lower electrode was prepared.

Finally, a thin film aluminum of nm was deposited to fabricate an electrode, a connection portion, and a bonding pad.

PMUT is also an emerging US detector based on flexural vibration induced by a thin-film piezoelectric membrane. The PMUT provides different benefits compared to CMUT including i relatively higher capacitance as compared to CMUT, ii does not require high polarization voltage, and iii has a compatible matching impedance with sample [ 91 , 92 , 93 ]. Several types of PMUT-based US transducers are widely used for biomedical applications, such as the catheter type, dome-shape array, and concave array type [ 94 , 95 , 96 ].

Liao et al. The membrane consists of a PZT layer of 0. In the pulse-echo mode, the high resonant frequency of 10 MHz, good spatial gain, and broad capturing angle have been demonstrated. The piezoelectric layer based on AlN was generated from metallic Al samples at room temperature via intermediate frequency magnetron reactive sputtering. Additionally, its manufacturing process has the benefit of being compatible with the standard ICs. Figure 5 cii shows the schematic of the PAI experimental setup.

Figure 5 ciii,civ,cv show one-dimensional PA signal, sample photographs, and reconstructed PA image of human hair within the phantom, respectively. Typically, a conventional piezoelectric US transducer works in the resonant frequency band, which is determined by the thickness of the piezoelectric crystal. When a thin piezoelectric crystal film is used to produce a high-frequency transducer, this thin film is fragile and it causes manufacturing complexity and ruggedness issues [ 42 ]. Also, these transducers have a low axial resolution because of limited bandwidth and have small FOV because of limited capturing angle.

They are also difficult to integrate with high-resolution optical microscopy, which has short working distance i. To address these drawbacks, diverse optical based ultrasonic detection methods, such as Fabry-Perot polymer film [ ], Michelson interferometer [ ], Mach Zehnder interferometer [ ], and MRR [ 52 , , , ] have been reported with an easy-to-apply configuration for endoscopic and microscopic systems and superior US sensing capability.

Among these approaches, MRR has additional strengths. Chao et al. It was designed in such a way that the ring and the straight-line bus waveguides were interconnected Figure 6 ai. They used polystyrene PS as the waveguide material, which has the advantages of high sensitivity for acoustic pressure and low absorption for visible to near IR spectrum light. The width of the waveguide is 2. Nanoimprint process was applied to fabricate waveguides with high sensitivity. First, a mold with an inverted pattern was produced using electron beam lithography and RIE.

Subsequently, a spin-coated polymer was imprinted onto the substrate by using the fabricated mold at an appropriately increased temperature and pressure. By applying pulse-echo signals, the MRR response was acquired, as shown in Figure 6 a ii. Reproduced with permission from Chen, Sung-Liang, et al. Reproduced with permission from Li, Hao, et al.

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Figure 6 bi shows the system configuration. A high speed diode-pumped solid-state Nd:YAG laser at nm was directly inserted into an optical fiber and was transferred to a 2-axis MEMS scanning mirror. The MRR detector was located 3. System performance was demonstrated by visualizing the microvessels in a mouse bladder with lateral and axial resolutions of Even though these MRRs were investigated on silicon plates, they are not optically transparent. Therefore, only permeable PAI system configurations that are not suitable for scanning thin layered samples were possible.

Li et al. The two tapered optical fibers combined with the input and output stages of the ring and bus waveguide simplify the packaging process and improve the coupling efficiency. Due to the optical transparency of the MRR detector, a highly focused laser beam was irradiated on the thin samples via the MRR detector located on the adjustable holder. A thin film sample was used to obtain a PA image with improved axial resolution and is shown in Figure 6 ciii. Typical array-type US transducers used in clinical USI and PAI require multiple complex multi-channel DAQ devices to simultaneously receive large amounts of acoustic data from each transducer element [ ].

This increases the overall PAI complexity and cost of the system. Recently, the concepts of acoustic time delay were reported by M. Yapici et al. The parallel connected acoustic delay line receivers were utilized instead of the transducer elements. Each delay line detected the acoustic signal and generated an appropriate delay time so that the signal arrived at a different time on the other side. A single transducer was connected on the opposite side for sensing the time delay signal in series.

Thus, the delay line reduces the requirements for multi-element transducer elements and multi-channel DAQ devices. This approach would be more cost effective than conventional US detecting systems. The handheld optical fiber based delay line was investigated as a promising method to take several advantages, such as less acoustic loss, microscale size, flexible property, and low cost [ ].

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Laser Diode Microsystems (Microtechnology and MEMS) [Hans Zappe] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Laser Diode Microsystems. Editorial Reviews. From the Back Cover. Laser Diode Microsystems provides the reader with the basic knowledge and understanding required for using.

However, in order to generate enough time delay in the optical fiber, a considerable length of optical fiber is required due to the high US velocity in the medium. Moreover, additional attenuation and signal distortion could also occur due to the covered jacket layer. Optimal optical alignment is also necessary to obtain a proper signal and manual assembly. Cho et al. Thanks to the material property of single crystalline silicon, this method has better transmission efficiency, small size, and more productivity when compared to the optical fiber-based delay lines.

Each acoustic channel delivers a single acoustic signal with a specific travel path and delay. To generate sufficient delay length and maintain a compact size, each acoustic channel consists of several U-turns.

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As shown in Figure 7 ai,aii , channel parallel lines were fabricated by an RIE process using the aluminum pattern mask. All fabricated delay lines were located on the acrylic housing. Since the ultrasonic pulses propagate different lengths from the delay line, they reached the outputs at different times. Figure 7 a iii shows the acquired two-dimensional PA image from the proposed parallel delay lines.

A similar concept was adopted by the same group to micromachined acoustic multiplexer [ ]. Unlike the acoustic delay line, acoustic multiplexer can selectively transmit the acoustic signal via the movement of mercury droplet in microfluidic channel Figure 7 bi. The assembled multiplexer is shown in Figure 7 bii.

The silicon delay line and multiplexer structure were fabricated by the RIE process. Two PDMS sealing pads were used to form a microchannel with the silicon structure, and the PI microtubing was connected to inlet and outlet of the channel. Mercury droplet was driven by a syringe pump. The PA image of the phantom using this system is shown in Figure 7 biii. To collect eight channel signal, illumination and acquisition were repeated eight times.

Reproduced with permission from Cho, Young, et al. Reproduced with permission from Chang, Cheng-Chung, et al.

From the MEMS scanning mirrors perspective, they have shown several advantages, including fast scanning abilities, compact sizes, and high SNRs. In particular, the water immersible MEMS scanning mirrors broke through the intrinsic limitation of PAM techniques that were caused by acoustic coupling medium i.

New advances also contributed to the fabrication of the well-established preclinical PA handheld probes and PA endoscopic systems for brain studies, angiogenesis, and cancer studies. MUTs enable wide frequency bandwidth, small size, and conventional integrating process with electronics.

These contribute to develop a multispectral clinical PA system with endoscopic or handheld probes. Especially, because of its micro-scale resolution, this can also be applied to PA endoscopic and microscopic imaging systems. Acoustic delay lines show the potential for a new cost-effective acoustic delivery and mixing tool.

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In spite of these advances in MEMS technology, further optimizations are needed for clinical use. First, the currently developed water immersible MEMS scanning mirrors are not yet micro size, which limits their application for endoscopic type device. There is also a need to reduce scales, such as t that of silicon-based MEMS scanning mirror through the development of advanced microfabrication. In addition to the MEMS scanning mirror, MUTs, MRR, and acoustic delay liens, also require special and expensive fabrication process, such as e-beam lithography and anisotropic etching with high aspect ratio.

These fabrication processes make it difficult to achieve mass production and stable system performance. Thus, there is a need to develop simple microfabrication process to reduce cost as well as to increase reliability. If these challenges are resolved, we expect the MEMS technologies to contribute greatly to the development of high-performance and clinically useful PAI systems. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Journal List Micromachines Basel v.


Published by Springer Verlag On October 1st, , Prof. Brand new Book. The conference is tailored for students of Equipped with typical results and calculation examples, this hand-on text helps readers to develop a feel for how to choose a laser diode, characterize it and incorporate it into a microsystem.

Micromachines Basel. Published online Nov 8. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 12; Accepted Nov 6. Professor Dr. Thiswork is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved,whether thewholeorpart of thematerial is concerned,specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproductiononmicrofilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof ispermitted only under the provisions of theGerman Copyright Law of September 9, , in its current version,and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer.

Violations are liable to prosecution under theGerman Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. This book describes a new family of integrated force sensors based on a standardindustrial microcircuit technology. The sensors are mainly applied as real-time insitu monitors of the thermosonic wire bonding process commonly used in micro-electronics manufacturing.

The project goal was to develop newsensing schemes to better understand bonding processes, facilitate product develop-ment and finally improving the existing bonding process, by combining the exper-tise in integrated sensor development of PEL with the state-of-the-artmicroelectronic bonding processes of ESEC. During the collaboration project, twoof the authors started and finished their disserations which form parts of this book.

In microelectronic manufacturing the thermosonic bonding of gold wires ontoaluminum metallization is the most frequently used process for electrical chip topackage interconnection. It is a permanent requirement to bond thinner and thinnerwires faster and faster. Process mastery is unusually difficult to achieve comparedwith that of other processes in the field of microelectronics assembly and packag-ing. We believe miniaturization and cost reduction in this field are tasks that need tobe addressed with new technologies, such as the microsensor technology presentedin this book.

After an introduction to the wire bonding process in Chap.

Microsystem Materials - Aktuelle Nachrichten von der Technischen Fakultät

Chapter 4 summarizes the thorough char-acterization of the microsensors. Their application for the bonding equipmentdevelopment, bonding process understanding, and flip-chip reliability characteriza-tion is described in Chap. The authors are indebted to many colleagues and former students at ESEC andPEL for stimulating discussions, helpful comments, and useful suggestions. In par-ticular, the help of Dr. Daniel Bolliger, Martin Zimmermann, Dr. The substantial contributions ofMichael Althaus and Quirin Fglistaller to the electronics and software are highly.

The continuous support by Prof. Last but not least our special thanks go to Prof. Oliver Paul and Hans-Ulrich Mller who, nine years ago, were the first to initiate the real-time use ofmicrosensors for microelectronics packaging processes. The trend towards miniaturization, system integration, and manufactur-ing speed-up is driven by cost optimization of the manufactured product.