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About the book Self-assembly is a process in which discrete components are spontaneously organized into ordered macroscopic structures. Publishing process Book initiated and editor appointed Date completed: September 4th Applications to edit the book are assessed and a suitable editor is selected, at which point the process begins.
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Self-assembly is also the reason why nanotechnologies have such a profound impact on the chemical industry. One example is the huge area of polymers used for industrial products think plastics. Chemists are using molecules' tendency to self-align to design molecular structures with specific properties. Once you know how certain nanoparticles behave and what properties they possess you can use this knowledge to deliberately create structures with desired properties.
This is a much more efficient way than the cement mixer chemistry of old where you mix compounds in a more or less arbitrary way based on best guesses and see what materials you get and then try figure out what you could do with them. The two major self-assembly techniques are colloidal self-assembly, which has exciting possibilities in terms of generating novel materials by combining nanoparticles with different properties into well-defined crystalline structures, and DNA, which is the archetypal self-assembling system.
DNA-based self-assembly offers flexibility in the types of structures that can be produced, based on single-stranded, double-stranded or duplex, and more complex supra-molecular assemblies. One-, two-, and three-dimensional structures can be made, and the ability of other nanoscale objects to be functionalized with DNA, combined with the specificity conferred by complementary sequence recognition, means that DNA can connect and organize disparate nanostructures to make relatively complex constructs, including well-controlled nanoparticle crystal lattices, and even active systems.
Structural DNA nanotechnology , specifically the molecular self-assembly process known as DNA origami , has emerged as a versatile approach to fabricate nanodevices with complex nanoscale geometry, defined placement of molecular functionalities, and programed mechanical and dynamic properties.
Scientists already are using DNA origami technology to design and build structures on the scale of viruses and cell organelles. In a first step, scientists form V-shaped building blocks using DNA-origami techniques. Determined by the opening angle a defined number of building blocks self-assemble into a gear-wheel. In a third step these gear-wheels form tubes with sizes of virus-capsids.
DNA origami is a design technique — similar to the traditional Japanese art or technique of folding paper into decorative or representational forms — that is used by nanotechnology researchers to fold DNA strands into something resembling a programmable pegboard on which different nanocomponents can be attached. Guided or templated self-assembly typically makes use of boundaries created by top-down methods that interact with a system that has an intrinsic structural length scale.
This latter can arise from the balance between long-range magnetic, electrostatic, or strain energy, or, as in the case of block copolymers, can come from local interactions built into the molecular structure of the material. Self-assembled microstructures using laser printing capillary-assisted self-assembly.
Image: Swinburne University of Technology. The technology to fabricate integrated circuits will continue to evolve in capability and cost, but will remain uneconomic for low value-per-unit-area, high-volume products. The family of lithographic technologies, such as nanoimprint, whose development has been driven in large part by the semiconductor industry, will be scaled to suit a variety of cost structures and so will find a wide range of applications, especially for those structures requiring only a single patterned layer.
Bottom-up self-assembly will have a role in the production of simple functional materials that are used in high volumes and must be inexpensive, while directed assembly allows for the imposition of longer-range order and hierarchy that will be important for some applications. Perhaps the most exciting prospect is that of creating dynamical nanoscale systems that are capable of exhibiting much richer structures and functionality.
Whether this is achieved by learning how to control and engineer biological systems directly, or by building systems based on the same principles, remains to be seen, but will undoubtedly be disruptive and quite probably revolutionary.
We identify the relation between trench width and the emergence of defects with nanometer precision. Resume : N-doped graphitic carbon submicrorods were synthesized by thermal transformation of zeolite imidazolate framework-8 ZIF-8 submicrorods. Jennifer Monahan,, Andrew A. Another slight contrast refers to the minimum number of units needed to make an order. Until robotic assemblers capable of nanofabrication can be built, self-assembly — together with chemical synthesis — will be the necessary technology to develop for bottom-up fabrication read: "Mind the gap - nanotechnology robotics vision versus lab reality". Davis,, L.
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